INCIDENCE AND PATTERN OF OCULAR INJURIES AT THE CHUKWUEMEKA ODUMEGWU OJUKWU UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL AWKA, NIGERIA
Ochiogu BC (FMCOph.); Udeaja AC (FWACS)Department
of Surgery, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka.
Author for Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ochiogu BC, Udeaja AC. Incidence
and Pattern of Ocular Injuries at the
Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria.
Orient Journal of Surgical Sciences. Vol.
2. January -
Page 26 - 34
AIM: To determine the incidence
and pattern of ocular injuries at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu
University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria
METHODS: This is a retrospective
hospital based study carried out at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu
University Teaching Hospital, Awka. The case notes of new patients seen at
the Eye unit of the hospital from July 2016 to June 2018 were examined. Those
with eye injuries were further reviewed. Relevant information was extracted for
the study. The results were analysed using the scientific calculator and
presented with frequency tables and bar chart.
RESULTS: Out of the 2559 new patients
seen, 156 (6.1%) had unilateral eye injuries while four patients sustained bilateral
ocular trauma giving rise to 160 injured eyes. Of the 156 patients, 97
(62.2%) were males while 59 (37.8%) were females, with male to female ratio of
1.6 : 1. The age range was 6 months to 92 years, mean age 33.4 years. Fist 45
(28.8%) was the most common agent causing injuries followed by missiles 26
(16.7%). Activities leading to injuries included fighting 39 (25%), playing 22
(14.7%), vocational work 19 (12.2%) and farming 18 (11.5%). Seventy-two eyes
(45%) had visual acuity of 6/6 to 6/18 and 56 (35%) had acuity of <3/60 in
the injured eyes. Ocular contusion 39 (25%) was the most common diagnosis.
Fifty- eight patients (37.2%) presented within 24 hours whereas 3 cases (1.9%)
came after one month.
CONCLUSION: Ocular injury
can be encountered in any activity engaged by man. It may be accidental or
deliberately inflicted. Males and younger age group are more at risk. Fight was
the most common activity leading to eye trauma in our audit. Generally, there
was delayed presentation at the hospital following the injury. However, the
severer the injury, the earlier the presentation.
Pattern; Ocular injury; Presentation.
Injury implies damage inflicted on
the body by an external force.1 Ocular injury is any violence to the
eye whether accidental or intentional. It can be seen in all ages, sexes and
The setting of ocular injury can be as varied as the activities
man engages himself with.
These range from the simplest to the
most intricate, from vocational to recreational and from conflicts to even
criminal attacks.2,3 Gadgets installed for safety purposes could become sources
of eye trauma.4,5,6,7
The harm inflicted may be mild, moderate, severe and at times life-threatening.
The resultant ocular morbidities could pose a burden to the affected patient
and their family. The eye is
the body part through which light enters to elicit the
appreciation of the physical world. Preservation of sight is therefore more
cost effective than rehabilitation of the poorly sighted.4
Ocular injury could be mechanical,
chemical, electrical, thermal or radiation in nature.7 The advent of
the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS) in the early 2000 provided
a standardized and straightforward system for classifying mechanical injury to
the eye globe.8-15
The outer fibrous coat (cornea and
sclera) is referred to as the eye wall. The Birmingham eye trauma terminology
system (BETTS) for the classification of mechanical ocular injuries is detailed
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