INCIDENCE AND PATTERN OF OCULAR INJURIES AT THE CHUKWUEMEKA ODUMEGWU OJUKWU UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL AWKA, NIGERIA
Orient Journal of Surgical Sciences
Vol 2[1] Jan - Dec, 2021

original article

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INCIDENCE AND PATTERN OF OCULAR INJURIES AT THE CHUKWUEMEKA ODUMEGWU OJUKWU UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL AWKA, NIGERIA

 

Ochiogu BC (FMCOph.); Udeaja AC (FWACS)
Department of Surgery, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka. Nigeria.

Author for Correspondence: bernardochiogu@yahoo.com

Citation:

Ochiogu BC, Udeaja AC. Incidence and Pattern  of  Ocular  Injuries  at  the

Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria. 


Orient Journal of
  Surgical Sciences.  Vol.  2.  January  -  December 2021: Page 26 - 34


ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the incidence and pattern of ocular injuries at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria

METHODS: This is a retrospective hospital based study carried out at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka. The case notes of new patients seen at the Eye unit of the hospital from July 2016 to June 2018 were examined. Those with eye injuries were further reviewed. Relevant information was extracted for the study. The results were analysed using the scientific calculator and presented with frequency tables and bar chart.

 

RESULTS: Out of the 2559 new patients seen, 156 (6.1%) had unilateral eye injuries while four patients sustained bilateral ocular trauma giving rise to 160 injured eyes. Of the 156 patients, 97 (62.2%) were males while 59 (37.8%) were females, with male to female ratio of 1.6 : 1. The age range was 6 months to 92 years, mean age 33.4 years. Fist 45 (28.8%) was the most common agent causing injuries followed by missiles 26 (16.7%). Activities leading to injuries included fighting 39 (25%), playing 22 (14.7%), vocational work 19 (12.2%) and farming 18 (11.5%). Seventy-two eyes (45%) had visual acuity of 6/6 to 6/18 and 56 (35%) had acuity of <3/60 in the injured eyes. Ocular contusion 39 (25%) was the most common diagnosis. Fifty- eight patients (37.2%) presented within 24 hours whereas 3 cases (1.9%) came after one month.

 

CONCLUSION: Ocular injury can be encountered in any activity engaged by man. It may be accidental or deliberately inflicted. Males and younger age group are more at risk. Fight was the most common activity leading to eye trauma in our audit. Generally, there was delayed presentation at the hospital following the injury. However, the severer the injury, the earlier the presentation.

 

Keywords: Incidence; Pattern; Ocular injury; Presentation.


INTRODUCTION

 

Injury implies damage inflicted on the body by an external force.1 Ocular injury is any violence to the eye whether accidental or intentional. It can be seen in all ages, sexes and social classes.

The setting of ocular injury can be as varied as the activities man engages himself with.

These range from the simplest to the most intricate, from vocational to recreational and from conflicts to even criminal attacks.2,3 Gadgets installed for safety purposes could become sources of eye trauma.4,5,6,7

The harm inflicted may be mild, moderate, severe and at times life-threatening. The resultant ocular morbidities could pose a burden to the affected patient and their family. The eye is

the body part through which light enters to elicit the appreciation of the physical world. Preservation of sight is therefore more cost effective than rehabilitation of the poorly sighted.4

 Ocular injury could be mechanical, chemical, electrical, thermal or radiation in nature.7 The advent of the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS) in the early 2000 provided a standardized and straightforward system for classifying mechanical injury to the eye globe.8-15

 The outer fibrous coat (cornea and sclera) is referred to as the eye wall. The Birmingham eye trauma terminology system (BETTS) for the classification of mechanical ocular injuries is detailed as follows:


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